Left: Palermo Stone, Right: Tera-Neter
Written by Aston Farquharson
“Mythical Kings” and “Divine” Dynasties created Ancient Egypt??
"Aliens built the Pyramids"?
"A Super Aryan Race of Atlantis built the Pyramids"?
What if power and greed destroyed the Africans who could have fixed "Global Climate Change?
Introduction to the claim of “Mythical Kings”
The Turin Papyrus or Turin Royal Canon Column 2 mentions the Gods of Ancient Egypt, Spirits and “Mythical Kings”. This interpretation of the hieroglyphics, like too many others, is not correct. Let’s explore it.
The Turin Royal Canon includes not only some of the dynastic pharaohs and kings, but also has the so-called "divine pharaohs (rulers) who came from elsewhere" and who reigned, before the first dynasty of Narmer-Menes, around 15,000 to 12,000 BC. Some scholars lacking cultural understanding of African culture, called these “divine” kings “Mythical Kings” meaning that they were not real. The Turin Papyrus also speaks of these Mythical Kings existing thousands of years before the First Dynasty of Narmer-Menes in 3100 BC.
The Palermo Stele is also misinterpreted or mistranslated naming predynastic kings as gods or "Mythical Kings". These kings also existed thousands of years before the First Dynasty of Ancient Egypt in 3100 BC. The stele refers to Horus himself as a king or ruler who reigned over the land of Egypt yet some scholars and historians wrongly classify them as “Mythical Kings”.
The Turin Royal Canon has information found in Manetho’s scripts attributing Menes as the first king of Egypt, and he also listed gods and demi-gods as the rulers of the Pre-dynastic Period of Egypt.
Manetho wrote about what the Palermo stele that also mentions the gods of the first (real) dynasty. Yet, some of the more than 20,000 works attributed to Tehuti or Thoth that Manetho was familiar with referred to these very gods as kings. Manetho also stated that these same gods or Mythical Kings reigned from 33,894 to 23,642 BC.
Even W. Flinders Petrie in his book "The Making of Egypt" 1939 on the Anu tribes, wrote of the predynastic kings, "These figures are, then, the precious portraits remaining of the native pre-menite kings of the south..."
Two points to keep in mind. First, the Ishango Bone discovered with mathematics in Congo, Africa is dated to 30,000 to 20,000 years ago, clearly within Manetho’s timeline of gods or “Mythical Kings”. Congo is located by Lake Nalubaale that feeds the Nile River, along the one piece of land from Tanzania to Egypt. Kings and civilizations existed along the Sudanese strip of land and Congo, invented the Congo mathematics and also practiced astronomy at Nabta Playa over 8,000 years ago. Second, the zodiac was mapped between 15,000 – 30,000 BC). These tribal inventors were neither "Divine" gods or "Mythical KIngs".
Furthermore, Sections in Volney's “Ruins of Empires”, pp. 120-122, New York, 1926), he wrote of Charles F. Dupuis three volumes of authoritative research “The Origin of Constellations”, “The Origin of Worship”, and “The Chronological Zodiac”.
Dupuis himself states that the origin of the zodiac was around 15,000 BC.
The American astronomer and mathematician, Professor Arthur M. Harding, established a timeline of the origin of the zodiac to 26,000 BC. The Africans who were the first to map the zodiac, were neither "Divine" gods nor "Mythical Kings".
Lucian’s book on astrology states that: "The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians."
This is more proof that real kings or pharaohs predated the First Dynasty of Egypt and that the first civilizations of mankind go further back into what historians mislabel as prehistory. Manetho and others therefore must be wrong to classify these kings as gods or as “Mythical Kings”.
Manetho further states that some of the “divine” dynasties were called Gods, Heroes, and "Manes" and that "these gods who originated from Earth then became celestial and associated with the stars as they reached heaven". Here, too, Manetho may be very wrong and should have accepted what the predynastic scribers of the sacred religious texts like Tehuti wrote in the sacred texts that these gods were once kings who lived on earth like Osiris and his son Horus. Osiris and Horus might likely by kings of dynasties before Namer-Menes. Manetho was very familiar with the works of Tehuti or Thoth!
Manetho gives great detailed explanations on these dynasties called "divine" or god dynasties, each having a god at its head, including Horus, Anubis, Thoth, Ptah, Osiris and Ra, and that "these gods who originated from earth” but he then went further stating that they “became celestial and associated with the stars as they reached heaven". Scholars and historians today likewise wrongly placed these kings into the category of “gods” or “divine” or “Mythical Kings”.
Manetho’s statements above are further diminished or better yet refuted by overwhelming discoveries from many excavations of artifacts and ancient texts. The excavations of Emile Amélineau and Flinders Petrie, and others prove that civilized cultures like the Anu people or the Tera-Neter lived in the lands now call Sudan, Ethiopia, Kush, Nubia and Egypt before 3,500 BC. There is ample evidences of nomes or tribal lands with kings (the Qustul Incense Burner), Kerma, and Ta-Seti, and Napta Playa where God worship existed for thousands of years. Developments in writing systems, astronomy, arts, engineering, mathematics, and technology clearly existed before the Dynastic Period or Narmer-Menes that were undoubtedly the basis of Egyptian Culture.
Some proof that there were no “Mythical Kings”
French Egyptologist Emile Amélineau (1850-1915) first discovered evidence of the Anu people who lived for thousands of years before the 1st Dynasty of Ancient Egypt in Abydos, Nubia-Sudan. This is part of the region of North Africa that was that was more recently renamed Egypt. By excavating tombs and burial sites of these ancient Nubia-Sudan and Ancient Egypt, Amélineau became one of the very first Egyptologist in the world.
English Egyptologist William Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) after Emile, discovered a predynastic Anu statue or statuette in Abydos, Nubia-Sudan that has evidentiary inscriptions and a portrait of an Anu king or ruler called Tera-Neter (or ruler priest). The inscriptions are translated to be a "Palace of the Anu at Ermant, Tera-Neter" predating the first dynasties of Narmer-Menes.
Other Proof that there was no “god” or “Divine” Dynasties & no “Mythical Kings”
Africans during the so-called prehistory of their civilizations intentionally evolved their tribal dynasties along with god-worship by their ancestors for thousands of years before Ancient Egypt.
It began with Ra or Re the Supreme God:
Nu represents the primeval watery mass from which everything evolved as well as the sun and stars in the African Creation Theory. Based on the predynastic hieroglyphics, sacred Pyramid, Coffin, and Book of the Dead Texts, humans first appeared from the natural laws of the stars. Modern science was to prove this as true.
-Nut and Geb seemed to be African ancestors of priestly qualities, like Tehuti or Thoth, who were immortalized as gods. They were the parents of Isis, Osiris, and Seth. Biblical saints and angels are the equivalent of African ancestors immortalized as gods in the hieroglyphics and hieratic texts. Some scholars and historians misunderstood this in their translation or transliteration of the hieroglyphic and hieratic language translating Ntr or Neter references in the hieroglyphics to mean god in all instances. Neter could also mean divine spirits or divine leader or divine king. Thus, there were divine kingship, divine worship, divine priesthood, and divine dynastic rule that could give rise to god-like qualities of African kings. Combined with the adoration that Africans have for their dead family members and ancestors, like the Dogons and innumerable other African tribes, this adoration overtime becomes like worshipping a god or gods like Osiris, Horus, Tehuti and Ma’at.
-Isis and Osiris were wife and husband who bore a divine son Horus (Heru). The legend of the gods is that Set killed Osiris and Isis brought Osiris back to life giving rise to the African Spirituality of the divine principle of the Resurrection – that the Bible dutifully copied (Jesus).
Tehuti was the god of the moon, wisdom, writing, hieroglyphs, science, magic, art, and judgment. Tehuti (Thoth or Hermes) was worshipped from as late as 6,000 BC and very likely before this time. Tehuti developed knowledge in law, philosophy, religion, science and writing becoming an African legendary leader, and who was divined as a god like all the other gods. Osiris’ legend was agriculture and the arch male for virility and fertility, like his wife Isis likewise represented for mothers and women.
The Papyrus of Ani (the sacred Book of the Dead) located in the British Museum in London, states "O Ra ... the divine man-child, heir of eternity, self-begotten and self-born, king of the earth, prince of the Taut (the Other World), governor of Aukert ... O thou god of life, thou lord of love, all men live when thou shinest; art crowned king of the gods..." RA or Re is the one Supreme God, who was King of kings, Lord of Lords. See the Papyrus of Nu in the Britism Museum where Ra declares "...I am Ra..." or I am God. Also see the Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum where He is decared "Ra, father of the gods". Ra made Horus god the Son of Forgiveness and Redemption; and Ra made Osiris god of Judgement and the Resurrection, for the Afterlife. Except for Ra, all other gods were likely rulers or kings, queens, and priests who lived in prehistoric dynasties and were deified for their dedication to Sacred Spirituality and who also made great accomplishments for the welfare of their people who deified and worshipped them for their achievements, like Osiris and Ma'at. The priest Imhotep was made a god after building the Djoser Pyramid. This pyramid was the largest and most incredible edifice or building ever erected in the world at the time, until the architect Hemminu built the Pyramid of Giza, one of the great wonders of the world.
Ra deified Horus His son with the divine principle of God the Father and god the Son coming into existence, and Horus also became the god of Forgiveness - dutifully copied by the Bible (Jesus).
The Africans gave Isis the form of Hathor the queen mother and mother goddess who was revered worldwide. Hathor can be seen in the Dendura Temple holding Isis’ newborn son Horus in a manger or stable, another divine principle of the Africans that the Bible dutifully copied.
Ta-Seti-Kerma 15,000 to 4,000 BC; Kushite-Ethiopians or Nubians after 5,000 BC to 3,000 BC are the Ancestors of the Ancient Egyptians.
Kushite means the Kushites, the Ancient Egyptians, the Nubians, the Ethiopians, Ta-Seti, Kerma, and the Anu. These are one and the same tribes of people who migrated to North, East, and West Africa and were given different names (around the time and after the time of Christ). For over 100,000 years, they are all descendants of the Khoisan and Bantu farmers and herders adverse weather conditions forced into the African Great Lakes stretching from Tanzania to Sub-Saharan Africa to North Africa.
Tera-Neter Rulers of the Anu and Kings or Pharaohs before Ancient Egypt's 1st Dynasty
For about 100,000 years, African writing, arts, mathematics, science, and astronomy coalesced in Nubia-Sudan (the early Kushites) before the Africans created Ancient KMT or Kemet (Egypt) evidenced by the following:
Early arts: engravings, inscriptions, symbols, patterns, images of wildlife and people, the Supreme God Ra or Rë (Solar-Rë) and His symbolic pantheon of gods were what led Africans to develop the cultures leading to proto-writing and the sacred Medu Neter Hieroglyphics and later Hieratics, the sacred Pyramid, Coffin, and Book of the Dead Texts. Their inventions in astronomy, mathematics, and engineering were inevitable:
For many thousands of years before Ancient Egypt, that the Africans had been advancing toward civilizations with African inventions was neither myths nor fantasies.
--Over 100,000 years ago engravings were found in the Blombos Cave in South Africa. These engravings signified early arts, writing, and drawing of Africans.
--Astronomy at Adams Calendar 75,000 years ago in South Africa evidenced the scientific and technological minds of the Africans.
--60,000-year-old ostrich egg in Diepkloof, South Africa had engravings, patterns, and symbols used in communicating information on the names of locale areas further cemented skills in arts for writing in Africa.
--Mathematical calculations on Congo’s Ishango Bone 22,000-30,000 years ago in Africa indicated the mathematics and language advancing toward inventions in chemistry (mudbricks and concrete) and physics (astronomy and earth science).
--South Africa’s Wonderwerk Cave paintings 25,000 years ago were used to communicate information using hundreds of different symbols, patterns, images of wildlife, and people evidencing that the hieroglyphics were not far away.
--Astronomy and physics at Nabta Playa, Nubia-Sudan (the early Kushites or Ethiopians) 10,000 to 7,000 years ago in elaborate studying and mapping of the Orion and other constellations was defining accomplishments used on the pyramids and the Great Sphinx.
--To top it off, a monumental civilization built the edifice called the Great Sphinx at Giza around 10,000 BC just down the Nile. From a religious perspective, it is the most world-reknown horsemakhet megalith of sacred worship by the predynastic civilizations of the Kushites in Nubian-Sudan thousands of years before Ancient Egypt. This may nullify the idea that rulers before Ancient Egypt were merely Mythical Kings. Farmers or herders could not have built this and other megaliths.
--6,000 years ago, Proto-Saharan writing found in Kharga, Nubia-Sudan is the oldest form of actual writing with inscriptions using images of the Nilotic god Seth in Africa. We now know that Seth was indisputably Nubian-Sudanese or Kushite.
--Nsibidi was likewise 6,000-year-old writing script used to communicate numerous other languages in West Central Africa. Many other writing systems also existed in Africa at the time.
--Kerma-Nubia-Kush-Ethiopia 8000 BC to 5500 BC is one of the precursor cultures of the late Kushite Empires that primarily engaged in agriculture and cattle herding. Imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience (Tera-Neter), amulets and beads, seals, slate palettes, stone vessels, and a variety of pots. During this time, the Nubians began creating distinctive black topped, and red potteries.
--Kerma Deffufa temple of bricks was built before 3000 BC predating all Ancient Egytian pyramids by more than 500 years. Kerma was a large urban center that traded with the Near and Inida.
Qustul, Nubia-Sudan capital of Ta-Seti 15000 BC t0 4000 BC, the Incense Burner settled it as the first place kingship began, evidentiary proof of very high level of civilization and sophistication in Africa, and proof that kingship existed in Nubia-Sudan before Ancient Egypt:
Scholars wrote that the pharaohs appeared in Egypt and built pyramids, obelisks, temples of stones with granite with no evidence of how they came by this knowledge of astronomy, physics, mathematics, chemistry, and engineering.
English Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson says of all the pharaohs of Egypt "they seem to have no ancestors or periods of development, they seem to have appeared overnight."
--Sir Gaston Camille Charles Maspero (1846-1916), a French Egyptologist and director general of excavations and antiquities in Egypt comments on the sacred Egyptian texts: "The religion and the texts which made it known to us were already established before the first dynasty. In order to understand them it is up to us to put ourselves in the frame of mind of the people who constructed them, more than seven thousand years ago." (Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, vol. XIX, p.12).
In the 18th century, Constantin Francois de Chasseboeuf, Count Volney, wrote about the controversy regarding the race of the ancient Egyptians. In one translation, he wrote "...the ancient Egyptians were true negroes of the same type as all native-born Africans". In another translation, Volney said the Sphinx gave him the key to the riddle, "seeing that head, typically negro in all its features…"
Amélineau declared with finality: "From the various Egyptian legends, I have been able to conclude that the populations established in the Nile Valley, were Negro race, since the goddess Isis is said to be born in the form of a black red woman, that is to say, as I explained with the coffee-au-lait color that some Negroes have, whose skin seems to have metallic copper reflections." (extract from "Prolegomena to the Study of Egyptian Religion, 1916, Ed Leroux) Amélineau, Prolégomènes, pp. 124-125….
Amélineau is worth repeating: "These Anu were agricultural people, raising cattle on a large scale along the Nile, shutting themselves up in walled cities for defensive purposes. To this people we can attribute, without fear of error, the most ancient Egyptian books, The Book of the Dead and the Texts of the Pyramids… consequently, all the myths or religious teachings.”
“Mythical Kings” Claims & Venom against Truth became “Main-Stream” Fashion
Some scholars and historians will not abandon their theories of “Mythical Kings” probably oblivious to the overwhelming evidence refuting the old point of views. Perhaps they can't abondon their views because they had already propped up Ancient Egypt as the greatest ancient civilization ever, not knowing at the time that Greece was just "a pupil" of the Africans.
In 1791 the French Aristocrat, scholar and historian Count Volney stated that he had observed for himself the ancient monuments and temples in ruins for his "Ruins of Empires" of how empires rise and fall. Volney wrote "a people, now forgotten, discovered, while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and the sciences. A race of men now rejected from society for their sable skin and frizzled hair, founded on the study of the laws of nature, those civil and religious systems which still govern the universe."
Volney and numerous other white scholars had courageously committed the unforgivable acts of saying Ancient Egyptian was African. Their truthful acts were taken as betrayal of some wealthy few who wanted to preserve their justifications of slavery.
In 1839, Jean-Francois Champollion stated in his work “Egypte Ancienne” that the Egyptians and Nubians are represented in the same manner in tomb paintings and reliefs, was also ignored.
In the early 19th century, after Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt, his scientists concluded that “the Egyptians were Negroid." They also cited widely accepted and credible works of Constantin Francois de Chasseboeuf, Count Volney, and Vivian Denon that stating that the Ancient Egyptians were Negroid. They too were ignored.
Venom and anger erupted in volcanic proportions among the aristocracies of Europe. Scholars, historians, and academic writers saw their life’s works tattered or in flames: if the Egyptians were in fact Negroid, their published works would all be nullified. Useless! If Africans were the true makers of the early civilizations – a compliment that were easily awarded to the Greeks. The vast industry of slavery and its associated commercial industries in shipping, mercantile, cargoes, markets, and other million-billion-dollar business would eventually be destroyed, or worse extinguished. But some scholars and historians resisted and persisted with an escalation of deceptions to this day, and many prominent publications morphed into god complexes by aiding and abetting the unfortunate and destructive deceptions in the history books, choosing wealth over conscience.
Charles S. Finch III of the Washington Post on October 11, 1987 in his article THE BLACK ROOTS OF EGYPT'S GLORY wrote about the powerful voices around the world acknowledging that Greece was not the father of civilization as once thought … that Greece was merely "a pupil" of learned African priestly-teachers.
The Africans after all did know how to keep a secret of their civilizations for many thousands of years into prehistory! The discovery of their secret civilizations in the end precipitated their destruction by Biblical genocides, colonialism, genocide of slaves, and the enslavement of millions, in Europe and the Americas. Even innocent women and children were slaughtered for wealth and power.
Christianity and the Biblical scriptures did not hold back on what God mandated for Ham’s children, particularly Canaan and his tribes in the lands that were once Canaan.
In Genesis 6:9-11 we are told that Noah was God's favored ruler on earth and that he was "an upright man among his contemporaries." In Genesis 9:24-27, however, makes all Canaanites slaves and servants, also slaves or servants to Japheth and Shem by the proclamation of Noah in the name of his Biblical God. Some believe Noah words instigated slavery and the brutality to Africans that followed to this day.
Deuteronomy 20:16-18 essentially, and without mercy, called for the total ethnic cleansing and genocide of the Canaanites in the very words of the Biblical God. And just in case anyone had any doubt, 1st Samuel 15:2-3 confirmed the ethnic cleansing and genocide were to be executed without mercy. In case anyone had any doubt, Joshua 6:21 is the scripture where the actual execution of the acts mandated by God in the scriptures of ethnic cleansing and genocide even of “women” and “children”. The God of Moses could not be clearer as to what should happen to the offspring of Ham! So the Biblical God is a partisan God! This world may never see a race- or ethnic-neutral act with this God! Wars are to be our perpetual fate in this world because it is each according to his or her passion for power and greed! Those who rise today must fall tomorrow, like kingdoms and empires!
It so happens the power-hungry use Canaanites’ destruction as a precedent for Egypt and Kush, two other sons of Ham. The same fate was executed against even women and children. The book of Nahum (ESV) was descriptive and unforgettable:
Nahum 3:8-10 “Are you better than Thebes that sat by the Nile, with water around her, her rampart a sea, and water her wall? Cush was her strength; Egypt too, and that without limit; Put and the Libyans were her helpers. Yet she became an exile; she went into captivity; her infants were dashed in pieces at the head of every street; for her honored men lots were cast, and all her great men were bound in chains…" The Biblical scriptures have taught us that genocide and ethnic cleansing are forgivable by God. Matthew 12:31 "Wherefore I say unto you, all manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men."
The violence and hate against Africans gained impetus and gave birth to later voices dedicated to the Biblical promise of Noah and Moses. More recently, others picked up where the Bible left off during and after some Africans were enslaved with accompanying genocides:
Sir Flinders Petrie, British archaeologist and Egyptologist during the 19th to 20th Centuries declared that Ancient Egyptians were Semitic, Asiatic or European and definitely not Africans, even with the overwhelming evidence that he excavated that showed otherwise. He called the Egyptians the “New Race”. He wrote over 100 books and a university in Great Britain is named after him. Scholars and historians hastened to quote from his books and his speeches. Even after his later admissions that he was wrong about some of his assertions, they gave others no pause to the spreading of misinformation to the world. Petrie's actions had already inflicted significant harm on his intended victims, and there was no abating the continued suffering of the innocent, including women and children. Scholars and historians were Petrie’s victims as well but they, too, should be held equally accountable for Petrie’s deceptions they propogated. They ignore countless other voices like Volney and Budge. Petrie was a very powerful voice after whom a very university was named in London. Now his integrity and accomplishments must be questioned.
George Risner from 1899 to 1905 led the Hearst Expedition of the University of California, exploring predynastic and early dynastic burial grounds in Sudan and Egypt. As an assistant professor (1905–14) and professor (1914–42) of Egyptology at Harvard and curator of the Egyptian collection at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (1910–42). Risner discovered Kushite Culture and hid it from the world to keep Africa as a non-participant in the creation of civilizations and to preserve the deception that Egypt was non-African. Like Petrie, he called the Kushite Culture of Egypt European culture and this is what the history books and some white scholarships say to this day. Here too scholars and historians were knowingly led astray by Reisner, the powerful Harvard professor, but his aid and abettors, too, should be held equally responsible for not correcting or stopping the diatribe they were publishing.
To mention just a few others: in 1926, James Henry Breasted, dean of American Egyptologists, said that black Africa had no share in creating any of the first civilizations on earth.
Dr. Edward Bleiberg, assistant director of the Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeology at Memphis State University, joined other like voices and stated to the Memphis Commercial Appeal that "Egyptians were considered Caucasians."
Even Adolf Hitler practiced this view verbally and in writing against Africans, claiming that he was taught racism by the United States of America.
Everyone should nevertheless do their own research and draw their own conclusions. This paper was to offer sources for exploration as you delve into the sordid scholastic, historical realm many like myself once thought was truthful and even divine. Let’s not make this a terminus of learning. Let’s make it a gateway!
The United States of America, the greatest democracy in the world, must continue to lead and make the world a better place for everyone. We the citizens should start the dialogue to assist our leaders to place truth and integrity over power and greed. Otherwise, our democracy will fail. Our cherished instutions will fail; and our ethical-moral values will drown in the power and greed of the few!